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Disorders of water balance
Posted by: Panchito ()
Date: May 04, 2022 10:57PM

Many times salt is avoided but this can be bad for your health. Sea salt does not cause hypertension (but regular salt does). Low fluid volume from low sodium intake can cause many problems from brain problems, heart palpitations, to constipation (dryness). The solution is not to drink more water (it makes things worse by peeing the sodium) but to increase fluid by eating sodium.

Hyponatraemia = low sodium level in blood

[www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Hyponatraemia is the commonest in-hospital electrolyte abnormality. Mild to moderate hyponatraemia (plasma sodium 126–135 mmol/l) and severe hyponatraemia (plasma sodium <125 mmol/l) occur in 14% and 1% of hospital patients, respectively.12 Hyponatraemia is usually mild and selflimiting, but severe hyponatraemia is associated with substantial morbidity13 and a 60-fold increased mortality.14

Treatment of cerebral salt-wasting needs intravenous saline, often in large doses.19

In chronic hyponatraemia, adaptation to the low plasma osmolality occurs which
prevents the development of cerebral oedema.

Neurological symptoms are therefore likely, for instance, in a patient with SIADH secondary to subdural haematoma who is hypoxic and dehydrated, even if the ambient hyponatraemia is mild.

In cases where the classification of hyponatraemia is difficult, cautious intravenous saline therapy is recommended as first-line treatmen t.

Patients may develop a ‘locked in state’, typified by lethargy, behavioural changes and alterations in cognition.

Acute symptomatic hyponatraemia, with seizures and altered consciousness, is a medical emergency with high risk of cerebral herniation and death.



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 05/04/2022 11:00PM by Panchito.

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