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The B vitamins
Posted by: Panchito ()
Date: August 01, 2022 09:04PM


Their collective effects are particularly prevalent to numerous aspects of brain function, including energy production, DNA/RNA synthesis/repair, genomic and non-genomic methylation, and the synthesis of numerous neurochemicals and signaling molecules.

the B vitamins are typically synthesised by plants, with their synthesis in plant chloroplasts, mitochondria and the cytosol carefully regulated to the plant’s fluctuating requirements [1,2]. In the plant they perform the same cellular functions as the roles that they will go on to play in the animals that consume them, The exception to this is vitamin B12, which is synthesised by bacteria

we, and other animals, have generally lost the ability to synthesise a clade-specific palette of vitamins during our evolution. The apparent evolutionary paradox of why an organism would benefit from losing the ability to synthesise a compound required for its survival is resolved by the fact that, during the course of evolution, vitamins have been in ubiquitous and plentiful supply within the food chain.

As a coenzyme the biologically active form of the vitamin binds within a protein “apoenzyme” creating a “holoenzyme”, thereby increasing the resultant enzyme’s competence

As an example of their ubiquity, the primary bioactive form of vitamin B6, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, is an essential cofactor in the functioning of over 140 separate ubiquitous enzymes required for the synthesis, degradation, and interconversion of amino acids [15]

Overall, the plethora of functions undertaken by B vitamins can generally be subdivided into their roles in catabolic metabolism, leading to the generation of energy, and anabolic metabolism, resulting in the construction and transformation of bioactive molecules.

The brain is by far the most metabolically active organ in the body, representing only 2% of body weight but accounting for over 20% of the body’s total energy expenditure [38]. The B vitamins’ general metabolic functions, alongside their roles in neurochemical synthesis, may therefore be conceived as having a particular impact on brain function.

Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

Thiamine is a coenzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, which is a necessary step in the synthesis of fatty acids, steroids, nucleic acids and the aromatic amino acid precursors to a range of neurotransmitters and other bioactive compounds essential for brain function [9].

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

crucial for the synthesis, conversion and recycling of niacin, folate and vitamin B6, and for the synthesis of all heme proteins, including hemeglobin, nitric oxide synthases, P450 enzymes, and proteins involved in electron transfer and oxygen transport and storage [11].

Niacin (Vitamin B3)

A vast array of processes and enzymes involved in every aspect of peripheral and brain cell function are dependent on niacin derived nucleotides such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and NAD phosphate (NADP). Beyond energy production, these include oxidative reactions, antioxidant protection, DNA metabolism and repair, cellular signalling events (via intracellular calcium), and the conversion of folate to its tetrahydrofolate derivative [45].

Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)

This vitamin is a substrate for the synthesis of the ubiquitous coenzyme A (CoA). Beyond its role in oxidative metabolism, CoA contributes to the structure and function of brain cells via its involvement in the synthesis of cholesterol, amino acids, phospholipids, and fatty acids. Of particular relevance, pantothenic acid, via CoA, is also involved in the synthesis of multiple neurotransmitters and steroid hormones [14].

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine)

Beyond its role as a necessary cofactor in the folate cycle (see above and folate section below), the role of vitamin B6 in amino acid metabolism makes it a rate limiting cofactor in the synthesis of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), noradrenaline and the hormone melatonin. The synthesis of these neurotransmitters is differentially sensitive to vitamin B6 levels

Biotin (Vitamin B7)

The brain is particularly sensitive to the delivery and metabolism of glucose. Biotin plays a key role in glucose metabolism and haemostasis, including regulation of hepatic glucose uptake, gluconeogenesis (and lipogenesis), insulin receptor transcription and pancreatic ß-cell function [18].

Folate (Vitamin B9) and Vitamin B12 (Cobolamin)

The functions of these two vitamins are inextricably linked due to their complementary roles in the “folate” and “methionine” cycles. Indeed, a deficiency in vitamin B12 results in a functional folate deficiency, as folate becomes trapped in the form of methyltetrahydrofolate [11,19].

The efficient functioning of the folate cycle is also necessary for the synthesis and regeneration of tetrahydrobiopterin, an essential cofactor for the enzymes that convert amino acids to both monoamine neurotransmitters (serotonin, melatonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline), and nitric oxide [56,57]

The importance of all of the B vitamins to brain function is illustrated by the neurological and psychiatric symptoms commonly associated with deficiency in any one of these eight vitamins [11,45,58,59] (see Table 1). For example, the primary symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency are neurological, including depression, cognitive decline, dementia, and autonomic dysfunction [15] and vitamin B12 deficiency is often manifested in the form of neurological symptoms prior to the appearance of more typical haematological changes [20]. Notably, whilst about a third of those suffering folate or vitamin B12 deficiency present only with anaemia, a similar proportion present only with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Indeed, more than a third of psychiatric admissions have been found to be suffering deficiencies in folate or vitamin B12 [19].

Re: The B vitamins
Posted by: Panchito ()
Date: August 07, 2022 01:08AM

Haven't watched all but the:dry vs wet beriberi was interesting

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Deficiency: Food Sources, Purposes, Absorption, Causes, Symptoms

[11:14] []

B1 Beriberi (Thiamine Deficiency): Wet vs Dry Beriberi

[11:25] []

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Deficiency | Food Sources, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

[11:21] []

Vitamin B3 Niacin Deficiency (Pellagra) | Sources, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

[12:33] []

Coenzyme A (CoA) Biosynthesis Pathway and Vitamin B5

[8:03] []

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Deficiency | Dietary Sources, Causes, Signs & Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

[7:20] []

Vitamin B7 Biotin Deficiency | Sources, Purposes, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

[12:19] []

Biotin (Vit B7) Deficiency Signs & Symptoms (& Why They Occur)

[6:15] []

Folate (Vitamin B9): Why we need it, dietary sources, and how we absorb and metabolize it

[10:22] []

Folate Deficiency, Causes (ex. medications), Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

[15:54] []

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Symptoms (ex. Depression), Why symptoms happen, Schilling’s test, Treatment

[8:29] []

Causes of Vitamin B12 Deficiency | In-Depth Overview including Medications, Diseases & Fish Tapeworm

[10:41] []

Vitamin B12 Absorption & Metabolism | 2 Enzymes That Require Vitamin B12

[8:27] []

Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 08/07/2022 01:13AM by Panchito.

Re: The B vitamins
Posted by: Horsea ()
Date: August 14, 2022 11:45PM

If we need to ingest only 2.4 mcg of B12 per day, why do the vast majority of B12 pills (or sprays) contain so much more? Apparently anything more than the recommended dose goes to waste.

I'll own up to having watched only the last video on the topic of B12. Maybe the answer to my question is contained in the other videos. eye popping smiley

I do recall reading a lengthy article on B12 written by a scientists about 20 years ago wherein she found that animal products of all kinds had exactly ZERO Vit. B-12.

Re: The B vitamins
Posted by: Jennifer ()
Date: August 15, 2022 01:28AM


Folate Deficiency, Causes (ex. medications), Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

[15:54] []

I don't know about the other videos, but this video about Folate has some incorrect information.

At this point in the video -


He states that we get Folate from Fortified Foods ('Enriched') like cereals and grains.

That's wrong. We get Folic Acid, not Folate from Breads, cereals, grains, etc., These foods are Enriched with FOLIC ACID. Folic Acid is Synthetic.

"Folic acid is the synthetic (that is, not generally occurring naturally) form of folate that is used in supplements and in fortified foods, such as rice, pasta, bread, and some breakfast cereals."

It is also toxic to those with a MTHFR gene mutation, of which there are many people in the World - like 40% of us. It's one of the more common gene mutations. Among other issues, we don't metabolize or detoxify synthetic Folic Acid. Unfortunately, the Vitamin Folic Acid is 'bad' for pregnant women, yet pregnant women are advised to take a Folic Acid supplement (as well as Iron supplement).

He goes on to talk about the Bioavailability of Folate. He says that if we get Folate from foods which contain folate, we only 'can access' about 50% of it, whereas 'if we take a Folic Acid supplement, we would actually get 100% bioavailability from it just because of the change in structure.' No, it's not bioavailable to 40% of people.


This article is more accurate -

Folic Acid vs. Folate — What’s the Difference?



Article on the MTHFR gene mutation -

Do You Have The Gene Mutation That Affects 40% Of The World?


Re: The B vitamins
Posted by: Panchito ()
Date: August 16, 2022 01:58AM

If we need to ingest only 2.4 mcg of B12 per day, why do the vast majority of B12 pills (or sprays) contain so much more? Apparently anything more than the recommended dose goes to waste.

My guess is that extra B12 is excreted. There are exceptions. Very high B12 during pregnancy (with supps) can potentially cause autism on kids.

With age you need higher intake dose. It is better to shoot higher than lower. If using supplements, it is better to use a B complex because of other vitamins interactions.

Nori has B12. Tempe has B12.

Re: The B vitamins
Posted by: Panchito ()
Date: August 16, 2022 02:06AM

Folate Deficiency, Causes (ex. medications), Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

[15:54] []

I don't know about the other videos, but this video about Folate has some incorrect information.

Checked. synthetic B9 (the bad acid) needs B6 to be processed. In there is no B6 it becomes poison. Good catch.

Re: The B vitamins
Posted by: Horsea ()
Date: August 16, 2022 06:24PM

Dr. Greger has some strong opinions on Vitamin B12 supplementing:


He's pretty mouthy, isn't he, though that is not a reason to automatically disbelieve (or believe) what he says. I dunno.

Re: The B vitamins
Posted by: Panchito ()
Date: August 16, 2022 10:42PM

In that video he said that multivitamins can prevent B12 absorption. I don't know if a B complex could be considered a multivitamin. But it is good to know just in case. In the previous videos, it shows that B12 absorption can be compromised. So that means that for a small percentage of people, food or pills cannot help. They would need sublingual or intramuscular injection. It is difficult to make general statements for everybody.

Re: The B vitamins
Posted by: Horsea ()
Date: August 18, 2022 05:12PM

I too was wondering if a "multivitamin" would include plain b-complex. Easiest thing to do is just take the B12 separately and hope for good heath. There are so many factors deciding if you are healthy or not.

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