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Posted by: Panchito ()
Date: September 11, 2022 12:57AM


Choline was officially recognized as an essential nutrient by the Institute of Medicine in 1998.1 Its role in the body is complex. It is needed for neurotransmitter synthesis (acetylcholine), cell-membrane signaling (phospholipids), lipid transport (lipoproteins), and methyl-group metabolism (homocysteine reduction).2

The importance of choline in the diet extends into adulthood and old age. In a study of healthy adult subjects deprived of dietary choline, 77% of the men and 80% of the postmenopausal women developed signs of subclinical organ dysfunction (fatty liver or muscle damage). Less than half of premenopausal women developed such signs.7

Dietary choline from a variety of choline-containing foods is absorbed by the intestine and uptake is mediated by choline transporters.8 The major fate of choline is conversion to PC (also known as lecithin), which occurs in all nucleated cells.8 PC is the predominant phospholipid (>50%) in most mammalian membranes.9 Recent studies indicate that choline is recycled in the liver and redistributed from kidney, lung, and intestine to liver and brain when choline supply is low.8

When choline stores are inadequate, there is a diminished capacity to methylate homocysteine to methionine, and plasma levels of homocysteine increase.24 Elevated levels of homocysteine have been associated with greater risk for several chronic diseases and conditions including cardiovascular disease,25 cancer,26 cognitive decline27 and bone fractures.28 Intakes of choline and betaine have been associated with lower homocysteine levels, whether intake of each nutrient is considered independently or in combination and whether the source is from food or supplements.29,30 Homocysteine can also be methylated to form methionine via another pathway involving vitamins B12 and folic acid. Methionine can, in turn, be converted to S-adenosyl methionine. Deficiency of either vitamin B12 or folic acid can result in elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations and increased risk for chronic disease.31

Findings from the ATTICA study indicated that subjects whose diets were rich in choline and betaine had the lowest levels of several inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor.33 These findings were significant after adjusting for various sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical characteristics of the participants. Higher combined dietary intakes of choline and betaine were associated with lower concentrations of all of the inflammatory markers measured in the study.

Choline deficiency in cell and rodent models is associated with DNA damage and apoptosis.39,40 Cells grown in choline-deficient medium have greater membrane fragility than cells grown in control medium.39 Induced choline deficiency in a group of 51 men and women aged 18–70 for 42 days also showed increased DNA damage and apoptosis in lymphocytes.400 High dietary intakes of choline have recently been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer.

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Re: Choline
Posted by: Horsea ()
Date: September 24, 2022 12:07AM

Thanks. Choline is the one supplement I make sure to take.

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Re: Choline
Posted by: Panchito ()
Date: September 25, 2022 12:47AM

You can get lecithin made from sunflower seeds in powder form. It is probably not raw. It has less lecithin by weight than the soy lecithin.

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